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The Holy Roman Empire was one of the oldest and most influential imperial institutions in all of Medieval history. Tracing its roots back to the early Frankish kingdoms and the heroic deeds of men like Charles Martel and Charlemagne, the HRE existed in one form or another for nearly a thousand years. Yet the term ‘Holy Roman Empire’ did not enter common use until the 13th Century with the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. In this video, we explore why this was the case, delving into the Empire’s long and tumultuous relationship with the Papacy in Rome, and the circumstances that led to the end of that relationship for good.
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Wilson, Peter. Heart of Europe : a history of the Holy Roman Empire, Harvard University: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2016
Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara. The Holy Roman Empire, Yair Translation, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2018
Reuter, T. ‘The origins of the German Sonderweg? The Empire and its rulers in the high Middle Ages’, Duggan A. (ed.), Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe, London, 1993
Roach, L. Emperor Otto III and the end of time, TRHS, 6th series, 23, 2013
Otto of Freising and his continuator Rahewin, The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa tr. Charles Christopher Mierow with Richard Emery. New York: Columbia University Press, 1953. Reprinted
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